Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
The detection of autoantibodies against deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is essential in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Anti-dsDNA antibodies are found almost exclusively in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known as lupus erythematosus disseminatus. The prevalence of antibodies against dsDNA amounts to 20% to 90% depending on the detection method and disease activity. Antibodies against dsDNA are also occasionally detected in patients with other autoimmune diseases and infections and, in rare cases, in clinically healthy people. 85% of people in the latter group develop SLE within 5 years of initial detection of anti-dsDNA. However, SLE cannot be entirely excluded if anti-dsDNA antibodies are not detected.
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a systemic autoimmune disease belonging to the collagenosis group. The term "lupus" (wolf) is derived from possible skin changes caused by SLE lesions. Diagnosis of SLE is based on the 11 so-called ARA criteria (ARA = American Rheumatology Association), which were renamed ACR criteria in 1988 (ACR = American College of Rheumatology) and revised in 1997. If 4 of 11 criteria are present, the probability of SLE presence is between 80 and 90%. They are:
(red skin rash on the face, which spreads over both cheeks),
red, scaly, defined, elevated skin rash on other body parts,
sores or ulcers on the mucous membrane of the mouth,
joint pain and joint effusion,
serositis (inflammation of the so-called serous tissues such as pleura or pericardium),
haemological symptoms such as haemolytic anaemia with reticulocytosis, leukopenia,
immunological finds such as dsDNA antibodies, Sm antibodies, anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACA),
ANA in IIFT.
Anti-dsDNA (IgG) assay is a semiquantitative in vitro assay for human autoantibodies of the IgG class against double-stranded, genomic DNA (dsDNA) to aid in the diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE).